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Flu Vaccination

Flu vaccination is available every year on the NHS to people at risk of becoming very ill with flu to protect against flu and its complications.

Flu can be unpleasant, but if you are otherwise healthy it will usually clear up on its own within a week. However, flu can be serious for some people, and every year flu kills.

Flu is likely to be more severe in certain people, such as:

  • anyone aged 65 and over
  • pregnant women
  • children and adults with an underlying health condition (particularly long-term heart, liver, kidney or respiratory disease)
  • children and adults with weakened immune systems
  • anyone who has had stroke or a mini stroke

Anyone in these risk groups is more likely to develop potentially serious complications of flu, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), so it's recommended that they have a flu vaccine every year to protect them.

The annual flu vaccine is free on the NHS as an injection to:

  • adults aged 18 and over at risk of complications from flu (including everyone aged 65 and over)
  • Carers aged 18 or over
  • children aged six months to two years at increased risk of flu and its complications due to a long term health condition or treatment
  • Care home staff (aged 18 or over) with regular client contact.

Find out more about who should have the flu vaccine.

The annual nasal flu spray vaccination is available free this flu season to all children aged two and three years (age on 31st August 2019), plus all children in primary school (reception class to school year 6) as part of the routine NHS childhood vaccination programme.

How effective is the flu vaccine?

Flu vaccine is the best way to protect against flu.

Every year the World Health Organization (WHO) predict what strains of flu will be circulating the following winter. Most years it is well matched and there is good protection.

Studies have shown that the flu vaccine is the best way to protect against flu. Protection against this unpredictable virus is important as it can cause unpleasant illness in children and sometimes severe illness and even death, this is most likely among at-risk groups, including older people, pregnant women and those with an underlying health condition.

A flu vaccine  won't stop all flu viruses and the level of protection may vary between years, and between people, so it's not a 100% guarantee that you'll be flu-free, but if you do get flu after vaccination it's likely to be milder and shorter-lived than it would otherwise have been.

It’s important to have the vaccine every year as over time, the protection from flu decreases and flu strains often change. So new flu vaccines are produced each year, and people are advised to have the flu vaccine every year for best protection.

Flu vaccine side effects

Serious side effects from flu vaccines are very rare.  Read more about the side effects of the flu vaccine.

When to have a flu vaccine

The best time to have a flu vaccine is before flu starts to circulate. Ideally this is in the autumn, from the beginning of October, but don't worry if you've missed it, you can still have the vaccine later in winter if there are stocks left. Ask at your GP surgery or community pharmacy.

The flu vaccine for 2019/20

Each year, the viruses that are most likely to cause flu are identified in advance and vaccines are made to match them as closely as possible. The vaccines are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). All flu vaccines contain 3 or 4 strains.

It is recommended by WHO that quadrivalent vaccines for use in the 2019/20 northern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:

  • an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus
  • a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage); and
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage).

It is recommended that the influenza B virus component of trivalent vaccines for use in the 2019-2020 northern hemisphere influenza season be a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus of the B/Victoria/2/87-lineage.

A number of different influenza (flu) vaccines will be available in 2019/20, and are recommended according to age:

  • Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) - A live flu vaccine licensed for use from 2-17 years of age, and given as a nasal spray. This vaccine is quadrivalent (contains four strains of flu - 2 A strains and 2 B strains).
  • Quadrivalent inactivated vaccine (QIVe) - Injectable flu vaccines grown in eggs some of which are now licensed for use from 6 months of age. These vaccines are quadrivalent (contain four strains of flu - 2 A strains and 2 B strains)
  • Quadrivalent inactivated vaccine (QIVc) - Injectable flu vaccine grown in cells, licensed for use from 9 years of age. This vaccine is quadrivalent (contain four strains of flu - 2 A strains and 2 B strains)
  • Adjuvanted trivalent inactivated vaccine (aTIV) - An injectable flu vaccine that has an adjuvant added to work better in those aged 65 years of age and over. This vaccine is trivalent (contains three strains of flu - 2 A strains and 1 B strain).
  • High Dose Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (TIVHD*) – A high dose injectable flu vaccine for older people. This vaccine is trivalent (contains three strains of flu - 2 A strains and 1 B strain).

The flu vaccine recommended for eligible individuals differs according to the individual's age:

  • From 6 months up to 2 years of age - preferred vaccine QIVe
  • From 2 to 17  years of age - preferred vaccine LAIV
  • From 18 to 64 years of age - preferred vaccine QIVe or QIVc
  • 65 years of age and older - preferred vaccine QIVc or aTIV

*TIVHD is not recommended for use in NHS Wales

Is there anyone who shouldn't have a flu vaccine?

Most people can have a flu vaccine, read more about who shouldn't have the flu vaccine.

You can find out more by reading the answers to the most common questions that people have about the flu



Click here to see all vaccination leaflets.

Last Updated: 11/11/2019 13:20:52
The information on this page has been adapted by NHS Wales from original content supplied by NHS UK NHS website