Confusion (delirium)


Sudden confusion (delirium) can have many different causes.  Get medical help immediately if someone becomes confused (delirious).

How to tell if someone is confused

If a person is confused, they may:

  • not be able to think or speak clearly or quickly
  • not know where they are (feel disorientated)
  • struggle to pay attention or remember things
  • see or hear things that aren't there (hallucinations)

Try asking the person their name, their age and today's date.  If they seem unsure or can't answer you, they probably need medical help.

See a GP if:

  • you're worried that you or a relative are becoming increasingly forgetful or confused

It could be a sign of dementia.  The symptoms of dementia often start gradually and get worse over time.

Go to A & E or call 999 for an ambulance if someone suddenly becomes confused

Many of the causes of sudden confusion need assessment and treatment as soon as possible.  In some cases, it may be life threatening.

Things to do while  you wait for an ambulance


  • stay with the person - tell them who you are and where they are, and keep reassuring them
  • use simple words and short sentences
  • make a note of any medicines they're taking, if possible


  • do not ask lots of questions while they're feeling confused
  • do not stop the person moving around - unless they're in danger

Causes of sudden confusion

Sudden confusion can be caused by many different things.  Don't try to self-diagnose - get medical help if someone suddenly becomes confised or delirious.

Some of the most common causes of sudden confusion include:

  • an infection - urinary tract infections (UTI's) are a common cause in elderly people or people with dementia
  • a stroke or TIA ("mini-stroke")
  • a low blood sugar level in people with diabetes
  • a head injury
  • some types of prescription medicine
  • alcohol poisoning or alcohol withdrawal
  • taking illegal drugs
  • carbon monoxide poisoning - especially if other people you live with become unwell
  • a severe asthma attack - or other problems with the lungs or heart


The information on this page has been adapted by NHS Wales from original content supplied by NHS UK NHS website
Last Updated: 12/10/2021 08:55:46