Lupus is a long-term condition that causes joint pain, skin rashes and tiredness. There's no cure, but symptoms can improve if treatment starts early.

See a GP if you often get:

  • joint pain and stiffness
  • extreme tiredness that will not go away no matter how much you rest
  • skin rashes – often over the nose and cheeks

These are the main symptoms of lupus.

You might also have:

  • headaches
  • mouth ulcers
  • a high temperature
  • hair loss
  • weight loss
  • swollen glands, usually in the neck, armpits or groin
  • depression and anxiety
  • chest or tummy pain
  • changes in the colour of your fingers and toes when you're cold, anxious or stressed (Raynaud's)

Symptom flare-ups

Lupus often flares up (relapses) and symptoms become worse for a few weeks, sometimes longer.

Symptoms then settle down (remission). The reason why symptoms flare up or settle down is not known.

Some people do not notice any difference and their symptoms are constant.

See a GP if:

  • you often get symptoms of lupus

Lupus is better managed if it's found and treated early.

Tests for Lupus

Lupus is not always easy to diagnose because the symptoms can be similar to other conditions.

A GP will usually do some blood tests. They may diagnose lupus if the tests show you have high levels of a certain type of antibody, and you also have the typical symptoms of lupus.

You might be referred for X-rays and scans of your heart, kidneys and other organs if the doctor thinks they might be affected.

If lupus is confirmed, you'll be advised to have regular checks and tests, such as blood tests to check for anaemia and urine tests to check for kidney problems.

Lupus can range from mild to severe

Severity and how it affects the body

  • Mild - Joint and skin problems, tiredness
  • Moderate - Inflammation of other parts of the skin and body, including your lungs, heart and kidneys
  • Severe - Inflammation causing severe damage to the heart, lungs, brain or kidneys can be life threatening

Treatment for lupus

Lupus is generally treated using:

  • anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen
  • hydroxychloroquine for fatigue and skin and joint problems
  • steroid tablets, injections and creams for kidney inflammation and rashes

Immunosuppressant or biological medicines are sometimes used to treat severe lupus. They help to calm or control your body's immune system.

Versus Arthiris has more information on the treatments for lupus.

Living with lupus: things you can do yourself

Although medicines are important in controlling lupus, you can help manage your symptoms and reduce the risk of it getting worse.


  • use high-factor (50+) sunscreen – you can get it on prescription if you have lupus
  • learn to pace yourself to avoid getting too tired
  • try to stay active even on a bad day
  • try relaxation techniques to manage stress – stress can make symptoms worse
  • wear a hat in the sun
  • tell your employer about your condition – you might be able to adjust your working pattern
  • ask for help from family, friends and health professionals
  • eat a healthy, balanced diet, including vitamin D and calcium


  • do not smoke – stopping smoking is the most important thing to do if you have lupus
  • do not sit in direct sunlight or spend a lot of time in rooms with fluorescent lights

LUPUS UK has support, advice and information for people with the disease.

Causes of lupus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease. This means the body's natural defence system (immune system) attacks healthy parts of your body.

It's not contagious.

The causes of lupus are not fully understood. Possible causes include:

  • viral infection
  • certain medicines
  • sunlight
  • puberty
  • childbirth
  • menopause

More women than men get lupus, and it's more common in black and Asian women.

Pregnancy and lupus

Lupus can cause complications in pregnancy.

See a doctor before trying to get pregnant to discuss the risks and so your medicine can be changed if necessary.

The information on this page has been adapted by NHS Wales from original content supplied by NHS UK NHS website
Last Updated: 18/10/2023 11:20:17